Combined Maritime Forces (CMF)

A 32-nation naval partnership

CTF 151: Counter-piracy

monologo CTF 151Combined Task Force 151 (CTF 151) is one of three task forces operated by Combined Maritime Forces (CMF).

In accordance with United Nations Security Council Resolutions, and in cooperation with CMF coastal states, CTF 151’s mission is to disrupt piracy at sea and to engage with regional and other partners to build capacity and improve relevant capabilities in order to protect global maritime commerce and secure freedom of navigation.

CTF 151 was established in January 2009 with a specific piracy mission-based mandate, currently endorsed under UNSCR 2316. More recently it has been empowered to conduct wider maritime security operations in support of CMF.

History

Modern day piracy off the coast of Somalia has grown from the economic, social and political strife that has gripped the country since the mid-1990s. The rise of piracy in the region can be linked directly to the fall of the government in 1991 when gangs operated under local clan loyalty and warlord leadership facilitated by the vacuum of national governance.

During the second phase of the Somali Civil War in 2000, foreign ships exploited the absence of an effective national coast guard and illegally exploited Somali fishing grounds as well as dumping illicit waste that would further diminish the local fishing stocks. Local communities responded by forming armed groups to deter invaders.  This grew into a lucrative trade, whereby such groups would hijack commercial vessels and ask for large ransom payments.

Although there has not been a successful piracy attack off the coast of Somalia since May 2012, the potential for piracy remains. 

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Boarding teams from HMS Monmouth and ROKS Choi Young’s conduct a boarding during a counter-piracy validation exercise whilst under command of CTF 151

Composition

CTF 151 is a multinational force. Command is rotated between participating nations on a three to six month basis. Force flow in CTF 151 is constantly changing as a variety of countries assign vessels, aircraft and personnel to the task force.

Counter-piracy

In conjunction with the European Union Naval Force Somalia (EU NAVFOR), and together with independently deployed naval ships, CTF 151 helps to patrol the Maritime Security Transit Corridor (MSTC).

The EU NAVFOR Op ATATLANTA mission is a military maritime mission instigated by the EU in 2008 in response to the unprecedented Somali piracy crisis that affected the Gulf of Aden and wider Indian Ocean. It works in conjunction with CMF, the maritime industry and its partner missions inside Somalia such as world Food Programme, United Nations (U.N.) and other Non-Governmental Organisations (NGO’s).

RM Boarding Team conducting Boarding Exercise
A Royal Marines boarding team from HMS Monmouth take part in a boarding exercise during a counter piracy validation exercise whilst under command of CTF151

By following the guidance provided in Best Management Practices Rev. 4 (BMP4), merchant vessels will reduce the chances of being successfully attacked by piracy and/or small, high speed boats using small arms, rocket propelled grenades, and explosives.

CMF supports BMP4, as promoted by the commercial shipping community. BMP4 offers advice and guidance on avoiding piracy and is targeted at seafarers who intend to travel through the Gulf of Aden, Somali Basin and the Indian Ocean. Measures include: maintaining a proactive 24 hour lookout; reporting suspicious activities to authorities; removing access ladders; protecting the lowest points of access; the use of deck lighting, netting, razor wire, electrical fencing, fire hoses and surveillance and detection equipment; engaging in evasive maneuvering and speed during an attack; and joining group transits. CMF and CTF 151 also undertake regional and key leader engagement.